How To Lower Liver Enzymes

Definition

Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.

Theories of aging
What cause aging? The question that has been asked throughout the human history, but it doesn't seem to get any answer but raises many more unanswered questions. While many theories try to answer the question by related aging to tear and wear of the body, others deal with how the organs and systems in the body develop and deteriorate overtime, etc.

1. Somatic mutation theory

In this theory, aging is due to our inherited genes that come directly from our parents. Since the conception occurred, our body cells continue to divide and replication themselves. Since the division and replication are a life long precess at some point, for what ever reason, if cells division and replication can process incorrectly, leading to mutation of incorrect copy of DNA. Although the cause of this incorrect process are unknown, but researchers found that exposures to toxins, radiation or ultraviolet light, artificial ingredients, unhealthy life style, etc. can increase the risk of cells mutation and the cells copied incorrectly can mutate themselves, leading to accumulation of incorrect gene cells that trigger a chain reaction of an auto-catalytic nature in producing more and more fincorrect gene cell, until it finally is brought under controlled, this processes can lead to aging. As an organism, the immune system tries to destroy or scavenger these mutated genes but at some points, it is over whelming, leading chronic age related diseases.

2. Error catastrophe theory

The error catastrophe of aging was originally proposed by Leslie Orgel in 1963. Our body immune system helps to maintain the structural integrity of DNA not only for cell survival but also for the transfer of correct genetic information to the daughter cells. Error catastrophe indicated that alterations DNA and the incorrect placement of amino acids in protein synthesis could result in a progressive degradation aging as a result of these abnormal protein are no longer functioning as chemical passengers or signallers.

3. Protein glycosylation
Protein glycosylation is a result of chemical reaction of glucose with varies proteins, including enzyme, elastin and collagen in the blood. The cross linked protein glycosylation leads to cell to cell adhesion causing stiffness and rigidity of individual cells, reducing the cells function in taking nutrients and expelling waste.
If the cross link protein glycosylation occurs in the elastin and collagen, it will cause brittle skin, causing aging, but it happens in the organs it will be more serious and sometimes life threatening.

4. The neuroendocrine theory
First proposed by Professor Vladimir Dilman and Ward Dean MD, this theory postulates on wear and tear of the neuroendocrine system. In neuroendocrine system, the master pituitary gland secrets hormones to direct other glands in secreting their hormones and works conjunction with the hypothalamus glands form a command post in the nervous system in closely direct the function of most of the body functions.
but as we age, the hypothalamus loses its ability as a hormone regulator as its receptors of which uptake other gland hormones become less sensitive to them, including sex hormones, DHEA, serotonin, melatonin, etc.
As for cortisol, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands due to stress, is produced with abundance as we age.

5. Immune system decline theory
As we age, our immune system is weakening that cause us become vulnerable to the dangerous pathogens, including microbial and viral invasion. Within the immune system, the thymus glands which play an important role in helping formation of the immune system scavenger that reduces the function of immune system further that allow irregular cell growth cause of aging spot, tumors, cancer, infection, inflammation and onset of chronic illness.

6. Genetic programming theory
Genetic programming theory proposes that aging is programmed as the cells cycle in our body are also genetic program since their inception. the explanation is that all the cells are undergoing certain time in division over the a said amount of time before dying, leading to conclusion that people with the long live genetic program live longer than others who do not.
The theory also emphasizes the genetic diseases as a result of genetic programming diminished life span, regardless external and internal influence.
Further refinement of the programmed senescence theory was developed by Bernard Strehler, who proposed that as cells are program to perform specific functions within the organism that cause them to lose some of the ability to duplicate their genetic information, leading to aging.

7. Hayflick limit
The Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory discovered by Leonard Hayflick and a biologist in 1966. In vitro study, the number of times fibroblast diploid cells will divide before it stops. The discover is conferring a major hypothesis if the cell division can prolong in a infinite matter without conditions which cause damage of the cells, then organism can liver forever.
Exceptions:
Stem cells
Since stem cells can continue to regenerate new cells for the entire lifespan of the organism, without limit, thus constituting a notable exception to the Hayflick limit theory.
Cancer cells
Cancer cell in biological aspect, have found a way around the limit by becoming a group of immortalized cells produced from cell division that have no limit as to how many times this immortalized cell division might take place.

8. The telomerase theory
The tolomerrase theory is a continuation of support to the Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory involved in telomeres and telomerase. Telomeres are the structure at the end of the chromosome. As each time the cell divides, its telomeres is shortened, at certain length, the cell stops division and goes into senescence.
The experiment shows, the cell senescence can be reversed by controlling the genes of telomerase autocatalytic nature, which in turn, promotes the forever cell division capacity

9. The free radical theory
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls.

10. Other theories
a. Rate of living and lifespan
Rate of living is defined that a bigger organism, the longer it lives with human is one of the exception due to its slower rate of metabolism and lower rate of free radical activity, leading to low levels of age lipid pigment, resulting in longer life span. Experiment show that there 100,000 free radicals hit everyday in rat, comparing 10, 000 in human.
b. Caloric restriction
Caloric restriction hypothesis suggested in a study of young rat showed that if a rat is put into restricted diet with given of necessary nutrients, it lives longer than those were allowed to eat freely. With the result also the same in the old rat, the theory also suggest eating less may cause less toxins in the body that affects the immune system and reduces the risk of hormone change, leading to free radicals cause of aging.
c. Age spots
Age spots are mainly composed of lipofuscin and lipopigment caused by reaction of free radical and peroxidation, leading to the formation of age spot, as a result of oxygen species interact with autophagocytic degradation occurring inside the lysosomes.
d. Protein oxidation
Protein oxidation cay affect protein function in normal and pathological processes as a result of postranslation protein being alter by reduce oxygen species (ROS) cause of damage to enzyme, leading to dysfunction of its role resulting in aging.
e. Fast track of aging
The theory suggest that there are many of diseases and syndromes of which can contribute to faster track to aging
* Hutchison-Gilford syndrome
It is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. Those born with progeria typically live to thirteen years, although many have been known to live into their late teens and early twenties and rare individuals may even reach their forties due to genes mutation.
*Werner syndrome
It is Adult progeria, an disorder causes the appearance of premature aging. The syndrome does not develop until they reach puberty is caused by autosomal recessive disorder due to alter gene on chromosome 8.
f. Altered genes
Alter genes are the work of Friedman and Johnson 1988 " .... the effect of elevated expression of SIR2 in yeast appears to be conserved in C. elegans (Tissenbaum & Guarente 2001) and Drosophila (Rogina & Helfand 2004), and mutations in genes encoding components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway also extend the lifespan in all four organisms... "
"... It was originally suspected that extension of lifespan by reduced IIS might turn out to be a worm peculiarity. This was because mutations in genes in the IIS pathway can also cause the worms to enter a type of developmental arrest (dauer), normally seen only in response to low food or crowding (Riddle & Albert 1997). Dauer larvae are long lived, and the long life of IIS mutant adult worms could therefore have been a result of re-expression in the adult of the genes that make the dauer larva long lived...."
g. Free radical connection
Free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and accumulation of free radical damage over time can cause aging. Theory is first proposed by Denham Harman in the 1950sand in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species into the 1970s. Study showed that mutant strains of the roundworm that are more susceptible to free radicals have shortened life spans, and those with less susceptibility have longer lifespan
If free radical causes damage to the DNA repaired enzymes, it can increase the risk of unrepaired DNA damage, leading protein synthesis incorrectly. In fact, free radicals can inflict damage to all cells in body such as endocrine glands, leading to decreasing of hormone secretion, resulting in aging and Kupffer cell in liver, causing endotoxins accumulated in the blood, leading to more free radicals attacks the immune system, etc.

10. Hormone depletion
The researchers found that if an decrease or absence of the pituitary gland hormones mice is given enough amount of pituitary hormones, it lives longer than a control group of normal mice as it stimulates the production of growth and other hormones such as prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, etc.

11. etc.

Most Common Types of Free Radicals
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
1. Hydroxyl radical (OHa)
The hydroxyl radical, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH-). It is produced from the decomposition of hydroperoxides (ROOH) by the reaction of an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state molecular oxygen with water.
The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a very short in vivo half-life of approx. 10a9 s. This makes it a very dangerous compound to the organism. Hydroxyl radical cannot be eliminated by an enzymatic reaction and can damage virtually all types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, nucleic acids (mutations), lipids (lipid peroxidation) and amino acids, that makes it a very danger compound to shorten the life span of human being.

2. Superoxide anion radical (O2-a)
A superoxide anion is a compound that possesses an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge with the chemical formula O2a with one unpaired electron, leading to the generating of superoxide anion free radical.
Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause immune deficiency chronic granulomatous disease, leading to extreme susceptibility to infection and pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging.

3. Singlet oxygen
Singlet oxygen is the common name used for the diamagnetic form of molecular oxygen (O2), which is less stable than the normal triplet oxygen. In biological study, species, Singlet oxygen causes oxidation of LDL cholesterol and resultant cardiovascular effects.
Since singlet oxygen with activation by light can produce severe photosensitivity of skin, leading to skin defects.

4. Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide, a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that appears colorless in dilute solution. It is considered a highly reactive oxygen species because of its strong oxidizing capacity.
Hydrogen peroxide
A study published in Nature found that hydrogen peroxide plays a role in the immune system by signalling the white blood cells to converge on the site of damage. The process leads to white blood cells did not accumulate at the site of damage, but somewhere else if the gene in production of hydrogen peroxide is altered, causing higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and white blood cells in their lungs accumulation in the lung than healthy people.

5. Lipid peroxyl free radical
Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals steal electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, most often affecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulting in damaging to the cell membrane, which consists mainly of lipids, because of chain reaction after initial oxidating by producing even more lipid peroxyl free radicals if not bought under controlled fast enough.

6. Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. Even though, low levels of NO production are important in protecting liver from ischemic damage and contribute to proper smooth muscle contraction and growth, but its free radical and toxic nature can cause DNA damage and inflammation.

7. Alkoxyl radical
Alkoxyl radical which is an alkyl (carbon and hydrogen chain) group singular bonded to oxygen can result in cellular damage caused by oxyfluorfen, a herbicide.

8. Peroxynitrite

Peroxynitrite is the anion with the formula ONOOareacted quikly with carbon dioxide, leading to forming of carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. If the two radicals do not recombine to form carbon dioxide and nitrate, they can cause peroxynitrite-related cellular damage.

9. Etc.

Antioxidants
A. Antioxidant enzymes
Antioxidant enzymes are chemical substances found in plants that can protect the body from damage of free radicals by terminating the chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibiting other oxidation reactions.
1. Catalase
Catalase is an enzyme, found in most living organisms that are exposed to oxygen helped to converse hydrogen peroxide (free radicals) to water and oxygen as a rate of 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each second, using either an iron or manganese cofactor.

2. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage by reducing lipid hydroperoxides, an oxidation of lipid cell membranes which can easily break and form free radicals of the form RO and converting free hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

3. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an enzyme reduces pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to the a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) which helps to prevent damage of important cellular components caused by free radicals and peroxides.

4. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn.

B. Metals binding proteins
1. Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin, the major copper-carrying protein in the blood plays a role in iron metabolism. It prevents the oxidation that leads to the forming of oxidation from Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron) by exhibiting a copper-dependent oxidase activity, causing mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene cause of iron overload in the brain, liver, pancreas, and retina.

2. Ferritin
Ferritin, the protein produced by almost all living organisms, acts as a component to fight against iron deficiency and iron overload, keep in a soluble and non-toxic form and transport it to the body needs, including organs. It enhances the immune system in the presence of an infection or cancer and prevent the infectious agent attempts to bind iron to become free radicals by migrating from the plasma to within cells.

3. Lactoferrin
Lactoferrin, a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family, is one of the components of the immune system of the body by fighting against foreign invasion of bacteria and virus and lipid oxidation by inhibiting oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner even at concentrations beyond its capacity.

4. Metallotheinein
Metallotheinein, a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins helps to bind both physiological heavy metals through the organosulfur compound of its cysteine residues. It also captures harmful superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by liberating the metal ions which were bound to cysteine.

5. Transferrin
Transferrin is a glycoprotein that binds iron very tightly but reversibly. It enhance the immune system in fighting against infection, inflammation by creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacteria survival and cell oxidation.

6. Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that enhances the carrying of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and return CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
During oxidate stress, the cell membrane is protected by intraerythrocytic hemoglobin from the forming of free radical.

7. Myoglobin
Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates. The binding of oxygen by myoglobin is unaffected by the oxidation or chain of oxidative reaction in the surrounding tissue, thus reducing the free radicals damage caused by oxidate stress.

8. Etc.

C. Common antioxidants (scavengers)
1. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group which helps to break down molecules into smaller units in releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine. It is a cellular antioxidant, by reverting to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, once again when oxidized that inhibits the effects of mutagens.

2. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
a. Beta-carotene
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication, causing cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.

b. Alpha-carotene
Alpha-carotene, one of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet, is a form of carotene with a I-ring at one end and an I-ring at the other. It is the second most common form of carotene which not only protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals and enhances the immune system in fighting against bacteria and virus invasion, but also stimulates the communication between cells thus preventing irregular cell growth cause of cancers.

c. Beta-cryptoxanthin
Beta cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant, beside helping to prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA but also stimulates the repair of oxidative damage to DNA. it enhances the immune function infighting against inflammatory cause of polyarthritis, and irregular cell growth cause of cancer due to oxidation.

d. Lutein
Lutein is one of the most popular North American carotenoids. It is found in greens like kale and spinach as well as the yolk of eggs. Lutein is also found in the human eye. Getting enough lutein in your diet may help to fight off age related macular degeneration, an eye condition.
Researcher has shown that people who do not have enough lutein in their diet will not have enough lutein present in the muscular part of the eye. This is what likely leads to age related macular degeneration that can result in blindness.

e. Zeaxanthin
Zeaxanthin, a most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature, is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Intake of foods provide zeaxanthin with lower incidence of age-related macular degeneration as a result of its function of reducing the risk oxidative stress.

f. Lycopene
Lycopene is a red carotene of the carotenoid group that can be found in tomatoes, watermelons, and grapefruits. This powerful antioxidant is believed to be a powerful fighter of prostate cancer. Lycopene has many anti-aging capabilities as well as one of the most powerful antioxidants in the carotenoid group.

3. Flavonoids
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrinare a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
a. Quercetin
Quercetinis a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.

b. Rutin
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.

c. Catechin
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.

d. Etc.

4. Uric acids
Uric acids may have a potential therapeutic role as an antioxidant becuase of its function of inducing oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems.
High uric acid can cause arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, kidney stones, etc.

5. Thiols (R-SH)
Chemically, thiol, a organosulfur compound has strong odours resembling that of garlic. They are used as odourants to assist in the detection of natural gas. It presents in the amino acid cysseine which helps to the functioning of enzyme regulation, cell signaling, protein trafficking and control of gene expression. As a sulfide residue, thiol plays an important role in cell function of reversal oxidation by interacting with GSSG resulting in formation of intramucolar protein disulfide and GSG.

6. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is discovered by Dr. Karl Folfers in 1957, beside promotes the chemical reaction, often by speeding it up or allowing it to proceed under less stringent conditions, it also enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process.

7. Vitamin A, C, E. D.
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.

b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.

c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressue and inducing blood clooting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.

Others antioxidants
1. Copper
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA .

1.1. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and imflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.

1.2. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.

2. glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual's risk of cancer susceptibility.

Deficiency of Glutathione (GSH) causes hemolytic anemia, progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, disorders of the peripheral nervous system, diseases of the skeletal muscles, etc.

Intake with vitamin D increases glutathione levels in the brain and appears to be a catalyst for glutathione production.

3. Alpha lipoic acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. It has been used as over-the-counter nutritional supplements to treat a number of diseases and conditions. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) not only is importance in preventing the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency, but also generates dihydrolipoic acid by reduction of antioxidant radicals.

Recent study showed that Alpha lipoic acid may have a therapeutic and anti-aging effects due to modulation of signal transduction and gene transcription, which improve the antioxidant status of the cell.

4. Manganese

Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2a, with one unpaired electron) free radicals.

Although, superoxide is biologically quite toxic and deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidases cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.

Superoxide may contribute to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. In larger amounts, manganese can be poisoning to neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.

5. Selenium
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.

5.1. Heart health
Since it works synergism with vitamin E, it promotes heart health. Study showed by increasing the levels of glutathion, selenium decreases the risk of LDL oxidation, thus lowering the risk of plaque building up on the arterial walls, blood pressure and heart diseases.

5.2. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.

5.3. Cancer
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.

6. Zinc
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods. The ability of zinc in inhibiting oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. Chronic effects, zinc enhances the introduction of metallothioneins, which help to capture the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals due to cysteine residues, resulting in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
Over acute effects, zinc may reduce the postischemic injury to a variety of tissues and organs by involving the antagonism of copper reactivity as a result from its antioxidant functions.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    how to lower liver enzymes if high?
    i need to lower my liver enzymes? how do i do that

    • ANSWER:
      First check with your physician who ordered the blood-work to see if it is not a side-effect of a medication you are on. Then he/she will most likely ask you about your use of alcohol. Alcohol use can cause your enzymes to show high on blood-work tests. These might be showing some possible damage to the liver, but only your physician can make that determination. No one on the net can tell you that. Just as no one can examine you physically or any other way on the internet. This is your precious health, so please make an appointment & follow through with your personal physician. He/she may need to prescribe one or more medications to help keep impurities out of your blood. You only have one liver, please don't wait or fool around with this - go to a doctor.

  2. QUESTION:
    How can I lower my liver enzymes quickly after drinking 4 nights ago?
    I'm currently a tad high as far as liver enzymes go and need to lower them before I retest for my insurance provider tomorrow. Any suggestions??? Thanks so much:}

    • ANSWER:
      stop drinking alcohol. Alcohol will affect the liver enzymes up to 72 hours after consumption.

  3. QUESTION:
    How do I lower high liver enzymes, please help me?
    how do i lower high liver enzymes? My mother just found out she has high liver enzymes and she needs to fix it, she's not out of shape at all, she goes to the gym regularly, we're trying to get her liver good, what foods should and shouldn't she eat, i know no alcohol, and also what pain killers can she take? I know tylenol is a no no, so please and thank u so much.

    • ANSWER:
      I have had this same problem, but mine stems from anti-cholesterol medication and tylenol. I looked up in google some of the sites concerning elevated liver enzymes...here's one and I hope it helps:

      Good luck!

      http://www.elevatedliverenzymes.net/

      Although elevated liver enzymes are quite often present in liver injury, they are also noticed in other conditions. Therefore, a diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in itself does not even confirm any sort of liver damage in the patient.

      Some common causes of elevated liver enzymes are:

      Alcohol consumption

      Autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary bilary cirrhosis, or other autoimmune disorders of the liver or bile ducts

      Diabetes

      High triglycerides, or obesity

      Excessive use of kava kava, comfrey, pennyroyal, skullcap, or certain other herbal supplements

      Gallstones

      Hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, or other metabolic liver diseases

      Viral hepatitis, mononucleosis, or other infections

      Liver cancer

      Medications such as some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cholesterol medications, anti-biotics or anti-seizure medicines.

      Tumors of the liver, the pancreas or bile ducts

      You can continue reading a larger list of elevated liver enzymes causes.

      You should talk with your doctor directly regarding treatment options for elevated liver enzymes, as the underlying condition will change which treatments are better or worse for your case.

      Additional information on liver disease is also available.

  4. QUESTION:
    How can I lower elevated liver enzymes naturally?
    GGT is 131 ALT is 122 & AST is 59, is there a way to help correct these levels with natural remedies (ie diet & supplements)? Alkaline Phosphatase is only 62.

    • ANSWER:
      Eat healthy and give it time. Clinical recovery is followed some time later by improvement in the enzyme value.
      Some amino acids like Lornit, help.
      Good luck!

  5. QUESTION:
    about how to lower liver enzymes?

    • ANSWER:
      This question is so vague and lacks so many details that it's nearly impossible to answer. The best answer I can give is that it all depends on what is causing them to elevate. Elevated enzymes means that something is irritating your liver. Get rid of the irritant and the enzymes will come down. That's the best I can do.

  6. QUESTION:
    how do I lower my elevated liver enzymes?
    After my last physical, I was told that my liver enzymes were a little elevated , I was advised not to take any alcohol or medicine like tylenol. But apart from these precautions I would like to know if there are any other measures I need to take in order to lower my elevated liver enzymes like exercise and diet etc. I would greatly appreciate any suggestions in this matter.

    • ANSWER:

  7. QUESTION:
    how to lower your liver enzyme levels?
    need to lower this asap going for a job physical monday and they want you to have low liver enzyme count and cholesterol and blood sugar thanks

    • ANSWER:
      If you have a medical condition that elevates liver enzymes, you are not going to change them in 2 -3 days. The same with cholesterol.

      If you are trying to conceal a medical condition, you would lose your job once it would be found out.

  8. QUESTION:
    what are some of the natural methods to lower slightly elevated liver enzymes?
    During my last physical exam I was told by the doctor that my liver enzymes were a little elevated, the doctor advised me not to take any alcohol or medicines like tylenol. I never drink alcohol at all, except maybe a glass of wine during christmas or smoke or anything like that, I am currently in school so I stay up quite late in the night and I eat junk food occasionally. I cannot understand how my liver enzymes can be elevated. How dangerous can elevated liver enzymes be and what are the harmful effects that can result. I have tried to change my diet and exercise more often. I would greatly appreciate any suggestions that I can follow to reduce these elevated liver enzymes. Kindly help..

    • ANSWER:

  9. QUESTION:
    I have a dog with elevated liver enzymes, how can I lower them?
    they are supposed to be 60 or lower but my dog's are at 2100. they started at 110 then went down after the vet gave her medication, then they kept going down, and now they are back up again. What's going on? and how can I fix it? Naturally is there a way, like feeding her some type of herb?
    but I have a feeling that the vet is actually hurting her instead of helping her. she feels fine should we just take her off her medications?

    • ANSWER:
      Please follow your vets advise, or get a second opinion. Ask a friend or family member for a recommendation. You can call for vet and get a copy of your dogs blood work to take to a different vet. They have to give you a copy and they understand that some people feel better with 3rd party taking a look. There are prescription diets that help out. See if your vet has taken x-rays, or if they can do an ultrasound to rule out liver cancer.

  10. QUESTION:
    Can you help me how to quickly lower down my liver enzyme (SGPT) due to a fatty liver?
    I've been taking milk thistle & other herbs for the past 4 weeks and it works but I need something to that will lower it down more quickly.

    • ANSWER:
      Sure, A diet low in fat and high in fiber, fruits and vegetables can usually correct this problem.
      rachel

  11. QUESTION:
    How can I get a low-cost liver ultrasound?
    My doctor says my liver enzymes are high and wants me to get a liver scan. I don't want to do it because I have a deductible to meet for my insurance and I know I'm going to get hit with a huge bill. I'm wondering if I should just let it go and not worry about it or try to find a lower-cost option if there is one.

    • ANSWER:
      You really must not wait for any more answers to this question! Take yourself to a medical facility and get that test done asap! You can skimp on extras in your life to save money to pay your deductible cost. Many medical facilities will also work with you to pay the balance due with a payment plan.

      Don't waste anymore time! Go get the test done today!

  12. QUESTION:
    How beneficial do you think this vitamin combo is?
    I have PKD, and my doctor recommend that I take cranberry pills daily, to help lower the chances of burst cysts, kidney stones, and UTI infections. I also have heart palpatations, and low liver enzymes.

    I read online, that flaxseed oil helps lower high blood pressure. So, today I've started taking them.

    I take 1 cranberry(plus vitamin c) 3 times daily, 1 500mcg B12 tablet daily, and 1 1000mg flaxseed oil pill 3 times daily.

    How beneficial will this be to my health? How soon until I see the benefits from flaxseed oil?

    I hear flaxseed oil helps with bowel movements, if so, how long to see a difference in that?

    Cheers!
    I am not trying to lose weight. I did not mention that at all in my question.

    • ANSWER:
      The important thing is to eat well. Remember that they are SUPPLEMENTS not substitutes.

      My guess would aroubd a month to notice

  13. QUESTION:
    High Liver Enzymes (SGPT Test) - How long to lower?
    Hi,

    I received an abnormal liver enzyme level test, testing much higher than the normal (don't know exact number but think around 100).

    I drank several glasses of wine the night before my test which I'm curious if that directly affected the test; however I KNOW that my current daily intake of wine surely is causing the normal high levels as well... was just curious:

    #1 - if drinking the night before would have increased even more than normal if I hadn't

    #2 - I have stopped drinking completely, so how long until I can retake the test to make sure nothing else wrong which I'm pretty sure there is not - How long to wait after eliminating alcohol??

    #3 - After normalizing these levels, can I go to a more weekend, social drinking rather than my previous excessive, daily consumption??

    Many thanks!!

    • ANSWER:

  14. QUESTION:
    Can 4 years of binge drinking be undone (liver enzymes ok)?
    If a female has been binge drinking--about 400 mL (a pint) of vodka 1 to 2 times per week for the past 4 years, can the effects be reversed? Her liver enzymes are on the low side of normal, and TG, blood protein, and bili are all ok. How else can adverse effects of drinking be determined other than the liver enzymes? Can damage be undone, and how?

    • ANSWER:
      All affects of the alcohol poisoning can never be reverse but the best solution to your problem is stop drinking. The body will restore to a point but the affects are life time. But better eating habits and living habits help overcome the bad.

  15. QUESTION:
    Does anyone kno much about liver health?
    I went to the dr. A few lyears ago and she told me I had elevated liver enzymes. Now I'm just so convinced that I'm dying. Does anyone know if it's possible to lower ur enzymes if so how and how can I repair the damages? Someone please help I'm so worried.

    • ANSWER:
      A lot of things can elevate liver enzymes. It can be from really next to nothing like something you ate or drank that did it to major liver disease, so there is no way to tell why they were high. If they are high, the doctors will have them checked again and see if they are high on a regular basis. If they continue to be elevated, then they can do further testing. If you don't have any symptoms of liver disease, then there is no reason to believe you have one based on this single labwork you had done years ago.

      Go to your doctor and request another labwork be done on your enzymes to set your mind at ease. Elevated enzymes means that something is irritating your liver. It most likely is something minor, not major. You are jumping way ahead in asking how to repair liver damage since you probably have none, and if you do, you would have to know what type of damage and how much damage to answer that question. If you want to know how to lower your enzymes, then you must take away whatever is irritating your liver whatever that might be.

      Why would you torture yourself with worry for 3 years about this? Go to your doctor and get to the bottom of it if you are so worried. It's just nonsense to worry about something that is probably nothing. I had cirrhosis and a liver transplant. The one thing I learned throughout my ordeal is to never assume the worst. A doctor told me he was 99% sure I had malignant ovarian cancer when he examined me. It turned out to be cirrhosis. I'm probably the only person in the world to do a happy dance when they found out they had cirrhosis. It was bad, but not the worst. Always look at the half glass of water as being half full, not half empty.

  16. QUESTION:
    elevated alt and ast?
    Hi, need ur advice, i just had my alt and ast checked last April 28,2009 and came out 42 and 44 respectively, also had hepatitis profile and thanks god all negative, I am worried about my liver enzymes, i was taking fish oil and actually took it 2 hours before my blood was extracted. in addition to that, i took ciprofloxacin 500mg once a day for 5 days almost two weeks before the tests was done. pls help me, how can i lower my liver enzymes level? I need to do my medical for my application abroad, im afraid il have some problems.thanks alot

    • ANSWER:
      Those numbers are nothing to worry about. Depending on what lab you use as to what their normals are, your numbers would only be slightly elevated at worst. They look good to me. I would not worry about them.

  17. QUESTION:
    My liver enzymes are high?
    My doctor told me my liver enzymes are high what does it mean? And how could I lower them. I have an appointment next week to have my results read with the doctor but till then im woried.
    No I dont drink Alcohol and I dont smoke

    • ANSWER:
      This generally reflects inflammation and your doctor will check you for hepatitis. Some medications can cause elevated enzymes. If you are diabetic or overweight you may develope a "fatty" liver which also may elevate the enzymes. Finally rare metabolic diseases such as hemochromatosis(iron storage disease) can do it.

  18. QUESTION:
    Nutrition Question-10 POINTS for thorough answer =]?
    Mr. Murdock, a 64-year-old male, was brought to the emergency room in an inebriated state after being found lying in the street. He was markedly pales and undernourished with jaundice of the conjunctiva and skin. His lab results showed that he was profoundly anemic with elevated liver enzymes and low albumin, and suffering from a folate deficiency. When the patient became articulate after a few days, he reported heavy alcohol drinking for several years, consuming at least a pint of whiskey daily on intermittent binges. During these times, his food intake was reduced and limited to bread and occasionally chicken, but no fresh vegetables and rarely red meat or fish.

    1.What symptoms of folate deficiency did Mr. Murdock exhibit?
    2.How did his alcohol addiction contribute to the folate deficiency?
    3.What other groups of individuals are at higher risk for folate deficiency? Why?
    4.What are the best food sources of folate?

    • ANSWER:
      Hey, this isn't Homework Central. Do your own homework!

  19. QUESTION:
    How premature can a baby be and survive?
    I was reading about Preeclampsia, and the book said that if the symptoms were severe for the mother (ie >160/100, > +4 proteins in urine, low platelets, elevated liver enzymes and signs and symptoms of end organ damage), it is imperative that the baby be delivered to alleviate the condition.

    That's all good if she is at more than 36-37 weeks, but what if she is only 24 weeks pregnant with severe preeclampsia with a BP and symptoms uncontrolled by medications?

    How premature can a baby be and survive?
    Wow! So many great answers. Thank you all very much.

    • ANSWER:
      Age of viability (the age where a baby can survive) is 24 weeks gestation, and below the 24 week mark the percentage of babies who survive is extremely low. Level 4 NICUs will treat babies born in the 23rd week, but almost no hospital (at least now) will touch a baby born before 23 weeks. That being said, I read somewhere that the youngest baby to ever survive was born at 21 weeks and so many days, but my daughter was born at 22 weeks and she was alive when she was born. The hospital I delivered her at would not touch her, and she passed away after two and a half hours. They told me that her chance of survival at that point was close to zero. And had they tried to do anything to save or prolong her life, she would suffer through pain and she would have permanent brain damage, lung problems, heart problems, the list went on and on. In just a few years I'm sure we will hear stories of babies surviving at 16, 17, and 18 weeks, but currently the cut off is 23 weeks. In the case of a mother with severe pre eclampsia or eclampsia, or in my case with a severe uterine infection, where the mother will die if the baby is not delivered and it is too early to save the baby, doctors will always choose to save the mother.

  20. QUESTION:
    The liver has Great Regenerative properties. Curious on the average time it takes a damage liver to heal fully
    Im quite young, 21 and my liver has been giving me problems for the last couple of months. I know underage drinking is illegal and bad but ive done my fair share of it. I used to drink every weekend heavily. Some weeks i dont drink at all, others i drink 4 out of 7 days. it all varies. About a year ago i took a blood test. the results came back and some of my liver enzymes were high. I had abnormal LFTs. Doctor told me the numbers werent anything to worry aobut so i didnt retest and continue drinking. just recently i started getting pains in my lower abdonmial area, under my ribcage. I got another blood test done this morning and im still waiting on the results. Ive heard taht the liver is capable of healing if the damage isnt servere. If that is my case, which i hope it is, what steps do i need to take to ensure that. And on average how long does it take ur liver to fully recuperate. Oh What foods are good for the liver any specific diets any would recommend for nursing a poor liver.

    • ANSWER:
      i was a drinker and i would get pains so bad under ribcage i know your liver will always have scars if you drink they will come back again i stopped drinking 20 years ago the liver is soft when you don't drink it gets very hard the doctor puts his hand under your rib cage he can tell if your a heavy drinker take care of your self try not to drink to much it's not worth it a friend

  21. QUESTION:
    Last night, I hurt all over and I had done nothing to cause it. What could cause muscle pain all over?
    I still hurt today but have no fever so it isn't the flu or a cold.

    I called the doc for an appointment this morning but won't get to see him till Monday.

    I have many medical issues including diabetes, (levels are normal) thyroid trouble (just reduced thyroxine intake), Adult Onset Primary Immune Deficiency (VERY Low IgG levels), NASH (high liver enzymes).

    I just need a few suggestions to do searches on. One thing I was curious about is Fibromyalgia and how it starts. Thanks for your helpful suggestions in advance.
    Um..details re: answers.

    New mattress.
    Am seeing doc cause it isn't getting better and I use info from the net as a way of gathering info for questions to ask doc so I don't waste money on multi visits.
    It wasn't from exercise, at 45 I would have had that one figured out by now..LOL.

    Thanks to all that asked. I chose the answer with a link because it actually contained my answer!!

    • ANSWER:
      A good site for fibromyalgia is
      http://www.fmnetnews.com/pages/basics.html

      Is it possible something has caused you to have muscle spasms during the night?
      Have you recently come off any medications?
      Has your diet changed recently?

      Hope it gets better :)

  22. QUESTION:
    How long does it takes for acute hepatitis due to mononucleosis to go away?
    2 months ago I was diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis and with acute hepatitis (the later caused by the first) I was told both, the mono and the enlarged liver, would get better without need for medication. A month ago I went back to the doc for a follow up and I was told my liver enzymes were much lower (a good thing!) but I still feel incredibly tired and I can feel pain in my liver. I feel my liver to still be as enlarged as 2 months ago although it is healing good. How long would it take for my liver to be back to normal?
    The hepatitis is not caused by virus a b or c. It is an inflamation of the liver caused by the mono. I cannot transmit it to others through sex or blood, at all. This is not something I will live with. I know is temporary, I just want to know how many months because I can't engage in physical activities due to the inflamation.

    • ANSWER:

  23. QUESTION:
    I need a good cleanse for the liver and overall body?
    I've been feeling sluggish and I know it's due to weather change and me not working out as much. Everything I do eat bothers me to some extent as well. I was on a BCP called Yaz to regulate my cycles and it elevated my liver enzymes - now I'm trying to lower that back to normal. (i stopped taking Yaz- dangerous side -effects)

    I need a good liver cleanse and overall detox. Also, how old should a person be before considering a colon cleanse?
    I did not know that. so why are so many on the market FDA approved? shouldn't they be illegal?

    LOL@ Ant. I love Mexican food! I was waiting on your wisdom too.
    I am feeling a little depressed. it's the weather. I am more of a sun girl- that's why I plan to move. problem solved I guess.
    whats up Z! thanks for the insight.

    Thanks to all of you! good info to know.

    • ANSWER:
      Mexican food.

      ya I'm just kidding. What everyone else is saying is correct Cocoa. Getting off the Yaz will get your liver enzymes back to normal and eating a healthy nutrient dense diet will elevate your mood and energy levels

  24. QUESTION:
    Do you think there may be something wrong with my liver?
    I was on TB Treatment for latent TB an stopped a few weeks back. Today my liver enzymes came back really high 69 for AST and 148 of ALT. Doc sent me for a CT scan. Liver is normal size and not palpable. Additionally, the CT scan states "The solid organs in the abdominal cavity are unremarkable for acute pathology"?

    I know one of the side affects of the TB medicine is liver damage do you think that could be the cause. How long would it take my liver to heal from this? Finally, is there any sign of cancer in this report? The did mention "there are small right lower quadrant reactive lymph nodes but no evidence of appendicitis.

    • ANSWER:
      No, this has no indications of cancer. When they say "Liver is normal size and not palpable." It means there is not swelling. Palpable means the Dr can feel it by touching that area. In your case, he could not, Good sign. The Ct saying the organs are unremarkable for acute pathology" simply means, they can't find anything wrong. Sounds to me like you're in good shape. Enzymes would be high because you were taking that drug for a long time. Once it's out of your system, those enzymes will go back to normal. Don't worry about lymph node either, that could be anything and the report doesn't give any indication that it's something bad. Glad you're better.

  25. QUESTION:
    Did it effect her liver enzyme?
    Female,13,120 pounds Overdosed on tylenol 3 days ago and has not told any one but me, her best friend. and she wont go to the doctors. she took 12 Tylenol 8 hours witch i have at home and they are 650 MG ea. and i know for a fact its not safe to take that much. she asked me to ask my mom because my mom is a nurse but im scared my mom would think i took them or something [[ u know how moms are ]] but did it effect her liver enzyme? should i beg her to go to the doctor even if its been so long? she said she had some pain on the right lower side and feels likes shes gonna throw up. well please let me know im scared for her

    • ANSWER:
      OMG what did you do? This question is already 2 days old and no one has answered you? Is she okay now? She may have damaged her liver and she needs to tell someone right away and get intervention. Be a good friend (friends don't let friends...) and get her some help. Only a blood test can determine if her liver enzymes are elevated. She is probably okay with the small amount she took, but that fact that she took them is the danger. A large percentage of ppl who attempt once will attempt again and each time is more dangerous.

  26. QUESTION:
    Question regarding bloodwork and Liver Enzyme levels?
    I had blood work done my results ast (sgot) 37 alt (sgpt) 88 DR said I have no hep the tests were negative. I was told I have a fatty liver and it must be monitored

    Can someone tell me if I should be concerned and how can I lower numbers I have no health insurance but needed to have bloodwok done

    Also glucose was 107 no diabetes
    cholestrol 180
    LDL was 114

    Can someone tell me about these numbers I am overweight but have been losing weight the past 4 months I lost about 25lbs

    Thanks

    • ANSWER:

  27. QUESTION:
    Is there a possibility I could have Chirrosis of the liver?
    and if I had it (or the early part of it) how would I know that I am sick? I am 23, a female, I weight 240 pounds and somewhat a party girl, although I do not think I drink enough to mess up my liver enough to get Chirrosis. I used to drink every day and I had a 750 ml bottle of wine (sometimes 2 or 3 in one night) but then when I went to the doctor for lab work they said my liver enzymes were high so I cut down now I only drink about 4 times a week but when I do drink it is one full bottle in a period of one hour examples are a full 750 ml bottle of wine, a 750 ml bottle of mudslide or other cocktails such as Nuvo (same size) and 1 liter of Alize Rose. What are elevated liver enezymes and when they are high does that mean you have Chirrosis. I honestly think I am at low risk since my grandfather also drinks a lot and he drinks every day and more than I do and has been doing so ever since he was in his early 20's and now in his mid 70's. I read one article about if you drink there are some supplements like Milk Thistle that can reduce damage to the liver will taking these help in any way?

    • ANSWER:

  28. QUESTION:
    What is the control of a science experiment?
    I have to make up an experiment, using hydrogen peroxide and liver (because it has enzymes) and water . I have to test how TEMPERATURE affects the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction.
    the question and hypothesis i wrote:
    Question:
    How does temperature affect the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction?

    Hypothesis:
    A temperature that is higher or lower than the optimum may change the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The optimum temperature is 37 degrees Celsius.

    • ANSWER:
      Control in an experiment is anything you do to minimize the influence of variables that you are not studying on the outcome of your experiment.

      In your case the variable of interest is temperature, so you want to make sure your experiment measures only how temperature (and not other factors) affects the rate of the enzyme catalyzed reaction.

      A good control for your experiment would be to do two tests instead of just one. You should use the same liver sample and the same bottle of hydrogen peroxide, and make sure to do everything exactly the same in both tests, except that you expose one sample to 37 degrees during the experiment and leave the other at room temperature. That way any difference in your results can probably be attributed to the different temperatures and not any other factors.

  29. QUESTION:
    How Effective is "Red Yeast Rice" Tablets, Vitamin E & other "Natural" choices for cholesterol?
    My doctor just recommended "Red Yeast Rice" tablets for cholesterol control because my tests showed that the Zorcor I was taking had raised my liver enzymes to a dangerous level. So dangerous that if I continued taking Zorcor, it could destroy my liver. She said that I could get these tablets at Wal Mart.
    She also recommended using either Benecol, Take Control or Olivio (as a butter substitute), & gave me a list of food substitutes for lowering Cholesterol.
    I've also heard that Vitamin E helps lower cholesterol too. In fact, I understand that a person can"t take Vitamin E & Zocor together because the two could be too much together.
    Anyone hear or know of possible interactions if I tried both the "Red Yeast Rice tablets and Vitamin E? Or am I better off just trying one at a time?

    I truly appreciate anything you can share.

    Thanks!
    I love everyone's imput. Your answers are important for me to decide if I should take Red Yeast Rice or not, & to decide what to do next.

    • ANSWER:
      Chinese red yeast is very effective for reducing cholesterol as it works similar to statin drugs. There is one problem though. The statin drugs and chinese red yeast can adversely affect your Coenzyme Q10 levels which means you need to supplement with CoQ10. Low CoQ10 levels will affect your energy levels.

  30. QUESTION:
    my friend is in ICU with liver failure. Why are they talking rehab,his liver is not functioning. Will he die?
    He is a stage 3 alcoholic with no insurance, swollen abdomen, jaundice, disorientation, all of the major symptoms of liver failure. They are keeping him in ICU due to low sodium, but his enzymes are still off the chart. They are talking rehab, I find this ludicrous...isn't he in for a very painful death. I need a little help here in understanding how you can function without a liver...you can't! So why are the Drs not telling us this? Any help would be greatly appreciated...God Bless

    • ANSWER:
      becoz the alcohol rehabilitation is essential ,they are stabilizing his condition means he aint cirrhotic or in liver failure ,he stops alcohol he still has a chance his liver can compensate and whats left undamaged is able of giving yet,his current condition sounds good they mean and his biggest problem is drinking

  31. QUESTION:
    liver function tests ?
    My neighbor a liver test at a clinic . and the test came out and it revealed that she didn't have hepatitis. Her alt went to 60 to 74. The nurse said that she don't to be worried about this. But she is really concerned that her alt wanted to be back down to normal. But she has pain that comes and goes. What happens if her alt keeps going up.For a week she has drank glasses of water with a lemon in it. And she has been drinking green tea with antioxidants. Also she has been on a low fat , no sodium, no cholesterol diet. All her tests came out normal except her liver enzyme? How can she bring the alt down back to normal ? Is there a special diet that may help. She never shared needles, never was a drug addict, never had any multiple partners, and she never had a blood transfusion. She had been in the hospital twice for the last two years for two operations at the hospital and out of the hospital she was on pain medication including Tylenol.

    • ANSWER:
      I would not get too worried. It could be from vitamin supplements, herbal supplements, drugs you take for any medical problems, or could be many kinds of infections. If your doctor is concerned, he will do further testing on you...
      From:-
      http://www.drbriffa.com/blog/2008/02/15/why-carbs-can-turn-your-liver-into-foie-gras/

      Intake of fat was not associated with ALT levels
      Intake of protein was not associated with ALT levels
      Total calorie intake was not associated with ALT levels
      Intake of carbohydrate was associated with ALT levels

  32. QUESTION:
    TMI Warning...Parasites?
    I have been having stomach issues for a while now, so I went to my doctor, who now wants me to provide a stool sample.

    She thinks I may have a parasite in my intestines.

    Right now I am freaking right the hell out.

    How serious could this be if I do have a parasite?

    I am very hygienic ( I shower every morning, and bathe every night), I also wash my hands like crazy, and use hand sanitizer ( I keep a bottle of it in my purse).

    Where could Ii have caught this?

    My symptoms are:

    Blood in stool (this was 2 months ago,but stopped ,ER doc said I had Gastroenteritis).
    Mucous in stool
    Alternating btw diarrhea and constipation
    Sometimes when I pass stool, I get a tiny white turd
    Stomach pains (lower abdomen)

    I have blood tests for liver enzymes and Blood Cell count, both came back normal

    Anyone else ever have this?
    And what did it turn out to be?
    I'm also nauseous a lot of the time, and have gained weight.

    • ANSWER:
      Perhaps your personal hygiene is not an issue in this case - think about where you have eaten out lately, or traveled to lately that was out of the ordinary for you. If you do have a parasite, it could have come from something that you ingested at some point in time. And there are times when parasites can be dormant for months or even a year or two, so if you've traveled out of the country during that time frame, be sure to let your doctor know. Also if you frequently go camping or walk barefoot you could have been exposed to certain types of parasites that could end up in your intestinal tract, so think about where and when you might have done this. See links below for more information - it's going to depend on what type of parasite (if any) is found on how to treat and get rid of it. On a positive note, once your doctor determines what it is that you have, the treatment you're given will be able to help rid you of it before it can cause you further problems. Then, there are many healthy ways to help your body fight off any further infections from these nasty little critters. Feel better soon.

  33. QUESTION:
    Oh God, Parasites possibly?
    I have been having stomach issues for a while now, so I went to my doctor, who now wants me to provide a stool sample.

    She thinks I may have a parasite in my intestines.

    Right now I am freaking right the hell out.

    How serious could this be if I do have a parasite?

    I am very hygienic ( I shower every morning, and bathe every night), I also wash my hands like crazy, and use hand sanitizer ( I keep a bottle of it in my purse).

    Where could Ii have caught this?

    My symptoms are:

    Blood in stool (this was 2 months ago,but stopped ,ER doc said I had Gastroenteritis).
    Mucous in stool
    Alternating btw diarrhea and constipation
    Sometimes when I pass stool, I get a tiny white turd
    Stomach pains (lower abdomen)
    Nausea

    I have blood tests for liver enzymes and Blood Cell count, both came back normal

    Anyone else ever have this?
    And what did it turn out to be?

    • ANSWER:
      It doesn't matter how hygienic you are, how often you bathe, shower, wash your hands, etc. If you eat or drink something contaminated with parasites, you can become infected. I'm no doctor, but most parasitic infections can be treated, last I heard. When I was backpacking in Thailand in '95, I picked up an intestinal parasite when I drank unpasteurized milk. When I got back to the states, the doc ran a lot of tests, I took some sort of prescription medicine for two weeks, (can't remember the name of the medicine) and it cleared up. Try not to worry. This sort of thing happens sometimes.

  34. QUESTION:
    enzyme catalase, H2O2 lab, liver......?
    1) How will a change in temperature of the enzyme catalase effect the rate of reaction of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) decomposition

    2) Based on this graph: http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createa...

    what can you conclude about the effect of temperature on the reaction rate. Remember that the longer it took to rise, the lower the reactionrate. Why do you think this occurs?

    3) A student made two mistakes while conducting this experiment. 1- he mixed up the enzyme solution and subsrtate solution. 2- he inadvertently let the enzyme boil. When he tried the experiment his filter paper dics wouldn't float. Explain.

    4) There is a large amount of catalase found in your liver. Do you think that your liver breaks donw more hydrogen peroxide in the summer or winter. Explain.

    5) Many thanks for any kind of help here!

    • ANSWER:
      I only have time to answer one...

      4) A human is a homeostatic organism, meaning the internal temperature is almost constant summer and winter at approximately 37 degrees C. Therefore the rate of hydrogen peroxide breakdown by catalase in the liver will be the same in the summer or winter.

  35. QUESTION:
    If I have a really low tolerance to alcohol does that mean I have a poorly functioning liver?
    I can only have about 2-3 drinks before I get intoxicated. Which is great for price but makes me nervous that I may liver problems because of how easily I can get drunk. My reasoning comes from the fact that people on many medications can not drink the same way they can without them because the liver cannot process as well when it is overrun with medications on top of alcohol. So if I have low tolerance without medication does that mean my liver isn't that great, or just I have a lack of enzymes?

    • ANSWER:
      No. I;m sure your liver is fine. You have a low tolerance. If you drank more, you're liver would put more emphasis into producing alcohol dehydrogenase, which would raise your tolerance. But you obviously dont drink enough to force your liver into overtime, and thats a good thing.

      Remember - its the people who drink a LOT that have poorly functioning livers. You can really abuse a liver for decades before it goes bad.

  36. QUESTION:
    Serious question (hypothetical) from me for a change.?
    If someone has high blood pressure is it caused by high levels of cholestrol in the blood. And if someone is prescribed statins to prevent the further build up of plaque in the arteries, will taking this type of medication automatically lower blood pressure levels.

    And is it necessary to take medication for both blood pressure and cholestrol.

    How do statins work and how do blood pressure reducing tablets work. Are they not one of the same component ?

    The statins work on the liver enzymes but what do blood pressure tablets work on.

    Lots of questions about the same thing. I am concerned because my husband has been prescribed both. Even though he is a very active man I suspect his high cholestrol levels are due to wrong diet. He works away from home.

    I want to be able to say to my husband Look this is what the score is with your tablets and this is why you must take them'.

    His doctor has prescribed but not explained why he has.

    • ANSWER:
      Statins are bad for you and have lots of side effects, it is better to reduce Cholesterol with diet and exercise.
      They will not automatically lower BP. There are several types of medication to lower BP and without the name it is difficult to give you the mechanism.
      He needs to eat more healthily ie reduce saturated (animal) fat and increase wholefoods such as fruit, veg, beans, pulses, fish, nuts, etc.

      Best wishes.

  37. QUESTION:
    Is liver failure always terminal?
    My moms doctor thinks she may be in liver failure. Her previous blood test showed her enzymes to be in the 400s and she had another test 10 days ago and that was in the 600s. My mom is a drinker. She drinks at least 5 glasses of wine per night...if not more. She also takes morphene for chronic pain along with other meds. She had tripple bypass surgery several years ago. She is also a type 1 diabetic. Shes very thin and doesnt eat much....never really has been an eater. Her diabetes is hard to manage. In fact she passed out this past Saturday due to low blood sugar. My dad gave her an emergency shot. We've almost lost her many times, and I am worried this may really be it.
    Nearly 2 years ago my mother was nearly beaten to death and was in |CU for a month. Her father was an alcoholic and she uses alcohol to cope.

    How long can you live with liver failure? Oh and she's also in heart failure....I think. She said she's supposed to watch her water intake...through cardiologist.
    She will never stop drinking. She doesn't even admit she has a problem. When I was a child she drank much more and drank hard liquor. She believes she's fine now because she just drinks wine. She's had 2 DUI's in the last 15 years...but blames that on the police. I spent many years trying to get her to quit and I know that she will never quit no matter what.

    • ANSWER:
      1) "Frederick the Great" is incorrect. Dialysis is for renal failure, not liver failure.

      2) Depending on how bad the liver damage is, it may or may not be terminal. If it is due to advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, the prognosis is poor. If it is due to damage to the hepatocytes due to chronic drinking and not linked to cancer, the liver can regenerate itself to the point where she will actually be healthy. However, given the LFT enzymes you mentioned, she may be beyond that point. Only her doctors will know after monitoring her.

      3) Alcoholism is one of the most difficult addictions to treat. Some say it is actually the most difficult. She needs to quit drinking. An ultimatum should be made, she should have to choose alcohol or her family, and you should be firm about this. She must get professional help, but remember that relapse is very high. Think of alcohol addiction treatment as being a defensive player in soccer. Every time the ball comes your way, you must kick it out hoping the offense scores, which may or may not happen. So keep kicking that ball up field, and don't give up.

  38. QUESTION:
    Yellowish watery stool, and a sudden pain in the upper gastric area.?
    This is how it happened. My friend went to the doctor to have his lower back checked, thinking his kidneys have some problems. Turns out his kidneys are ok. But then, his blood test shows he has a high level of bad cholesterol, so the doctor prescribed him to take Crestor 10 mg for 30 days. His blood tests did not show any signs of problems with his liver, so it was safe to take the drug. He was then scheduled to have another blood test after 15 and 30 days to be sure.
    But then, after 2 days of taking Crestor, he experienced yellowish watery stool diarrhea, and extreme pain on the tummy. He stopped taking the medicine, and waited until the lbm subsided. He felt pain on the stomach everytime after he eats anything. He keeps himself hydrated with water and Gatorade.
    After 3 days of continous diarrhea, he had a peanut butter sandwich, and he felt the most excuriating pain he ever had. Tightness on his stomach and so much pain just below his ribcage.
    He went to the hospital, had blood tests and ultrasounds and xrays, but only showed that his liver has inflamed and the liver enzymes are high. The doctors did not know what might have caused the problem.
    Hepatitis were negative, he had gallstones, but showed that it did not do any harm.
    He got out of the hospital because he was feeling better, but still has anxiety on what might have caused the problem.
    We plan to seek for another advice, but we can take all the advice we can get from anywhere. Hope someone can give their thoughts and opinions.
    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Ok this one I know.... My son had the same problem.... Tell him to go to the Hospital have blood work done and tell him to TELL them that he wants to know what His amalese numbers are... My sons were exremly high, They thought he had Pancrintitis WAS NOT the case, turns out he had a Bile duct Blockage only seem on an MRI which showed the bile ducts from his Liver to his pancreas were Narrowed and blocked..... He had surgury ( Basic 1 day) to cut open his bile ducts and he is Just fine now.... No tummy issues at all

  39. QUESTION:
    Hello answers! Can you please help me? Infectious or what?
    Ok here's the deal, i recently had a cbc done and my neutrophils were low (.9- not sure how "low that is"). Apparently blood smear was normal. Liver enzymes slightly abnormal. Anyway I exploded with a massive sinus infection and bronchitis and was given antibiotics. But here's the dilemma:
    My symptoms have been going on for the past two years. However they all started after a trip to Europe and I was told that I was a hypochondriac because my blood tests were normal then (except for high rhumatoid factor).

    I have numerous symptoms such as :headache, muscle spasma, low fever, weight loss, puffy face, stomach pain that are mild enough to survive but nemerous enough to make my life harder.

    What would be the protacol if my wbc were low again, assuming that the smear was normal? Advice if any? Could it be some time of chronic infefection that only shows up in glimpses here and there?

    • ANSWER:
      Your travel to Europe might be an important consideration, depending on when you went and what circulating diseases were present then.

      If it were me, I'd make an appointment with an infectious diseases expert in your area. They will ascertain your symptoms and have a better handle on what might be the problem. Definitely mention that these symptoms occurred after your trip to Europe. That's an important piece of information!!!

      Good luck.

  40. QUESTION:
    is it normal to feel a pulse in your stomach? could be anxiety or heartbeat? not sure i do have tension?
    I have always had anxiety and depression problems but i have always had a feeling of being aware or concious of my heartbeat and you can see it pulsing through my shirt when i lie down...and you can feel it in my lower stomach.(could be from tension and posture)

    I sometimes feel it in my ear when lieing on the pillow on the side..maybe im too aware of things but is this normal? I have had a basic blood test comming back ok. slightly higher liver enzymes but it could be all the supplements like fishoil and gaba an vitamins i take

    how do I relax my stomach muscles? i tried stretching back in an arch but I always feel pressure on my stomach. im also double jointed in my shoulders and can skip with my arms lol. dont know if this has anything to so with it,

    thanks
    thank you maybe i feel my abdominal aorta because my stomach has been very tense for a long time due to anxiety....i cant seem to relax it or keep my posture right...just now typing this i have a weight in my somtach and concious of the pulse..but its not bothering me as much. lol

    • ANSWER:
      How about you go to your doctor and tell him? It might be an aneurysm that could go at any moment!

  41. QUESTION:
    How can you reduce CK level?
    OK so my friend's daughter has a muscle weakness (no diagnosis) and has had it for 2 years. Doctors never got a full diagnosis and in all her blodd reports since, her CK levels are very high (highest was around 44,000). The levels have come down a bit. This girl was very very healthy, in fact she played baseball and swam and did yoga and every other sport you could think of. I think her mother once told me her liver enzymes were high (when the weakness was first noticed).
    Her CK level isn't AS high but it is still very high. She still has a muscle weakness but I thought maybe I could help them out by finding something for her to take to lower her CK level.

    This could be a supplement, some type of food, even drugs (althought i haven't heard of any).

    Thank You.
    also i forgot to ask, how can you reduce liver enzymes
    this could also be a home remedy

    - also, her last CK level was 6000
    CK stands for creatine kinase

    • ANSWER:
      The high CK level is not the actual problem! The real problem is the breakdown of muscle tissue that is taking place. Good that her CK is no longer "off the charts," but it is still grossly elevated. Until the cause of her elevated CK is determined, it cannot be treated. Many times, the cause of elevated CK cannot actually be treated, as it is due to genetic mutation.

  42. QUESTION:
    Anyone with serious Hep C experience? My Mom is sick :( ?
    My Mom was diagnosed with Hep C in 2007, so its been about 4 years that she's had it. This entire time she's been a chronic drinker & smoker. She's also been heavy into hard drugs. Recently she had a heart attack because her liver gave her heart an infection. Also her liver enzymes have been raising & her blood pressure is extremely low.

    I don't know much about Hep C but I love my Mom very much! Please tell me anything positive or negative about Hep C. I need to know the truth of what will happen to her. She's not going to stop drinking or smoking, but she claims to have been off the hard drugs for over a year. Is she dying? How long does someone with these symptoms usually live? Please help with any info of Hep C!!

    • ANSWER:
      Hepatitis C is a virus that has entered your mothers
      body and is using her liver cells to replicate itself.
      When this virus uses the liver cell, that cell dies and
      it moves onto another liver cell to use.

      There are many things that can cause liver problems
      and your Mom has more than one: Alcohol
      consumption, medication toxification, and viral
      infection. Add to that her smoking and it isn't good.

      Only the doctors can let you know how far
      advanced your mother is in the liver disease
      from the testing they do: like blood tests, CT scans,
      ultrasounds, MRI, and liver biopsy. He can tell
      you whether or not she will pull through from all this.

      Let me explain about the liver and that will give
      you an idea of whether your Mom will be alright or
      not.

      The liver is made up of cells. These cells make the
      enzymes you mentioned. Things can damage these
      cells and cause the enzymes to leak out and go
      higher on the blood test results, like you just mentioned.
      This is not good. When damage occurs to the cells,
      the patients immune system will respond. The immune
      system usually tries to prevent foreign things entering
      the body from going into it any farther...therefore it
      causes inflammation to do this. The inflammation
      develops in the liver and causes the liver to
      enlarge in size. If the causes of this are not stopped,
      like the alcohol..drugs...virus...then it can lead to
      where the liver cells start to die off and form scar
      tissue in the liver. This scar tissue (that cannot
      be removed) acts as a wall that blocks the flow
      of blood to the functioning liver cells and cause
      them to continue to die off. It is a progressive
      disease, known as Cirrhosis of the liver.

      Your mother may now have this Cirrhosis," we
      cannot tell here." If your mom was free from
      alcohol and drugs and was able to withstand
      the long hours of having transplant surgery
      then she may live alot longer. Having
      a heart attack, though, may make this impossible.

      I'm giving you links to click on to learn more about
      hepatitis C and Cirrhosis:
      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/hepatitis-viral.html
      http://www.janis7hepc.com/
      http://www.medicinenet.com/hepatitis_c/article.htm
      http://www.hepctrust.org.uk/The+Liver/How+HCV+affects+the+functions+of+the+liver.htm
      http://www.hcvets.com/data/hcv_liver/cirrhosis.htm
      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

      Best wishes

  43. QUESTION:
    My dog Has IMHA, below is a msg from my VET & IDK what to do?
    The cyclosporine level, given that it was given to Logan 2 hours before the blood test (which means it should have been at peak levels) came back low. What this means is that it is possible that the Cyclosporine is not at an effective immunosuppressive dose for a long enough period during the day.

    Let's review where we are. If we look retrospecitively at the CBC's on Logan, we can see that there has been little change in the PCV, and little change inthe MCV (the size of the RBC which remains high) since I started treating Logan. So what we are doing now is adding to the side effects experienced by the patient, but not giving us a better result.

    His PCV (or HCT) have trended inthe following way 36>36>32>36, basically no change. His MCV (mean corpuscular volume, or the SIZE of the immature red cells) has trended as follows: 82>79>82>82, basically no change.

    The problem is that we do not know if the prednisone is having a positive effect on Logan, or if he would just wander along with a smouldering IMHA without drugs. We also do not know if we simply have not given the medications long enough to work properly. We veterinarians get very nervous keeping dogs on high doses of steroids for long periods of time, but in huma medicine a trialof this length (5-6 months) would be considered no where long enough to see visible positive changes.

    The enlarged liver on Logan is likely to be the result of the use of the prednisone, as it tends to cause a hepatopathy and his liver enzymes indicate that this is the case. It is possible, BUT NOT LIKELY, that something else is going on in the liver, like lymphoma, and is actually the underlying cause for the IMHA and the liver enlargement. The only way to know for sure would be to do an abdominal ultrasound and an aspiration of the liver and histopathology on the liver. This obviously would add to our expense.

    I am reluctant to try to decrease the prednisone at this point, because it is possible that it is working and is doing its job, and if we decerease it we may be faced with a fulminant re-emergence of the IMHA which originally made him so sick. As we have discussed, it is always more difficult to "recover" these dogs if they have a relapse after having been on a higher dose of prednisone.

    In my perfect world, I would do the following with my dog:
    Ultrasound and biopsy the liver
    Increase the dose of Atopica to 50mg orally twice daily on an empty stomach
    recheck the cyclosporine level in 3 weeks (2 hours after a pill)
    recheck the CBC at the same time
    keep the prednisone dose the same but split the pill and give 10mg inthe morning and 10 mgs at night
    If you tell me that the side effects of the prednisone are too egregious, or the expense of the Atopica is too high, we could begin to wean Logan off the meds and simply see what happens. There is a significant risk in that course of action, but i do not pretend to know the correct answer for this case. I have to know what you are thinking and how you think he is holding up on the medications. As you know, prednisone is not a benign drug by any means, and we live continuously under the threat of gastric ulceration, performation of the stomach and even death at these doses.

    Please let me know when you hae had a chance to review this, think about it and then lets talk. He is not an easy case.

    • ANSWER:
      Go with the vet's advice 100%. He/she sounds amazing and Logan is lucky to have such a good vet and such a caring owner.

  44. QUESTION:
    How do I fix my body?
    I have to retype all of this ughh.

    24 male,6' 170lbs, white, no medicines, no medical problems sort of stressed not horribly, 6-7 hours of sleep per night more on weekends
    I used to have horrible pain under my right rib in the liver area at night randomly a few times a year, so bad i would go to the hospital.
    My liver enzymes were high, but this was ruled college drinking bc they returned to normal. My iron was high one time and low another time.
    Ultrasound showed gallstones but docs dont think thats the problem
    I never drink much water dont eat that healthy but dont eat that bad either. I realized I was constipated so I have started chugging water and eating better more fiber. I no longer get the horrible pain but i have a constant pressure in the upper right near liver. I still get constipated. I push on the liver area under right rib and sometimes it gurgles and makes juices sounds and most of the time it is like a hard lump its like my whole colon from my leg to my liver area gets hard. I also pee alot it may be bc i am drinking more water. Sometimes it is really yellow like high yellow like Big Bird so i will drink water and it gets clear.

    I also feel tired all of the time and my eyelids not my eyes(I am talking about the skin part) will get itchy, scaley, red, flakey, and dark circles under them. There must be a cause for my constipation and upper right pressure. My bowel movements come every few days with laxatives(i try no to use alot) or naturally and will be flaky/chunky and sink to the bottom.

    What is the cause??? How do I begin to address this problem? DO NOT SAY GO TO THE DOCTOR I HAVE BEEN TO 40 doctors in different medical fields. The upper right thing seems to be unique to me...its weird i always have pressure there I can feel my hard colon or something.

    • ANSWER:

  45. QUESTION:
    Why won't they help treat my diabetes?
    I was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 3 weeks ago and have yet to recieve treatment for it. I recieved a glucometer and the other equipment it comes with to test my blood but that's it. My doctor won't give me medication because my liver enzymes are elevated and she needs to find out the cause. So she referred me to the hospital to start recieving a low amount of insulin to help control my blood sugar. She only wants me on insulin for a short amount of time until she can figure out if I have liver damage or not. But when I arrived at the hospital for instruction on how to inject myself with insulin the nurse was hesitant to show me. I have suffered from binge eating until recently (I've stopped now) so she refuses to give it to me because she fears I can go into insulin shock if I'm not eating properly. I explained this to my doctor and she said that the amount of insulin she prescribed for me to take (a very small dosage) won't do any harm to me. So I am going back and forth with my doctor and this nurse and I'm getting 2 different responses. The bottom line is is that I have diabetes, a possible liver problem, my blood sugar is high, I'm loosing weight and I can't recieve insulin treatment or medication for my diabetes. The nurse wants me to bring in a meal plan for 2 months before she goes ahead with instructing me how to inject the insulin. I understand her fear of me going into insulin shock if I don't eat enough throughout the day but why is my doctor telling me something different (she knows about my past eating disorder too)? I already have problems with my blood sugar, parts of my skin are darkening because of the diabetes and yet there's nothing that can be done for me????? Can the nurse ignore the doctor's repeated request to treat my diabetes with insulin she prescribed? She says it takes years before diabetes can do damage so waiting 2 months to see if my blood sugar goes down won't harm me. But my liver is already not functioning properly so there's no other choice but to go on insulin. Since it's type 2 diabetes she thinks with diet and exercise it'll go away in 2 months. Who's to say I don't have damage already and I could be dead in 2 months. What do I do?

    • ANSWER:
      Wow. I feel for you. I say this as a person who has switched endocrinologists 3 times and diabetes educators twice since being diagnosed 6 years ago. These are medical professionals, they should know better. But they don't.

      My advice? In the short term....insist that the doctor herself show you how to give yourself the injections. Or a nurse in her office. It literally takes 10 minutes or less to show you how. What takes the longest is getting over your initial fear of sticking yourself in the belly with the needle (yes, the belly...belly fat is the best for absorption, and I swear, you barely feel it unless you accidentally hit a nerve, and just make a mental note not to use that particular one inch spot again.)

      Keep some sort of fast-acting sugar with you at all times once you start the insulin. Glucose tablets, toddler-size juice boxes....the first time you go low after you start insulin is scary, but just fix it quick and move on,...if it keeps happening , tell your Dr. to lower your dose. (By the way, try to only take 15 grams worth of sugar or carb to fix the low, or you will go too far the other way. If it isn't coming up in 15-20 minutes, then treat again. Your brain won't work right while it is happening, so a pre-measured 15 grams of sugar is best. 3-4 tablets or pieces of candy, juice boxes not cartons, etc.... Figure out how much you will need BEFORE you need it!)

      Then, I don't know where you live, but ask your Dr if there is anywhere else in the area that offers Diabetes Education, and go there for a class in the rest of the details. As soon as you can. I recommend a class in carb counting. It helps alot with portion control, which helps alot with blood sugar.

      Good Luck, and hang in there.

  46. QUESTION:
    Shorter version of "I dont know what is wrong with me".?
    Summer 2005 - I started Birth Control due to horrible periods and was diagnosed with low blood sugar and was taking nexium for acid reflux.

    Summer 2007 - I began to have swollen lymph nodes, was getting chronic sinus infections, my doctor put me on a Zpac a million times, and by end of summer my muscles hurt so bad and I ended up developing TMJ.

    Fall 2007 - I was FINALLY diagnosed with Epstein-Barr, which is also known as mono. My levels were 500% the normal level that should be in a person's blood. Everyone has it, but most people's doesnt flare up. I was put on a multi-vitamin, ANOTHER zpac, and a folbic tablet. I was also instructed to have no exercise and to sleep 10-12 hours a day. I was still on Birth Control. Also, my liver enzymes were showing to be high as well as high WBC in my urine.

    Spring 2008 - I developed the flu, and was constantly sick. Then, I went bowling one night with my family, and hurt my back. I went to see a chiropractor who after a few adjustments completely threw me off balance as well as creating problems for my floating rib. I still had levels of epstein barr in my blood and was STILL on birth control (Yasmin)

    March 2008 - I stopped birth control and suddenly began to feel a little better. By the time I saw a disease specialist I told him that I had quit birth control and now I felt a bit better, and that was that.

    May 2008 - I graduated! But I still didnt feel right. My rib still hurt, my liver enzymes were horrible, and the doc put me on steroids which did not help. I began running and that past leg injury flared back up and was worse than ever. I started physical therapy again and my muscles began to hurt again.

    Since then I still have muscle pain, as well as pain in my side. My stomach flares up often, and I occasionally get swollen glands and tmj. I have not felt normal for years now, and I feel like something has to give! My periods are horrible since I have gotten off of BC. Swollen, tender breasts, heavy periods, more stomach discomfort around that time, bad mood swings, and I get up in the middle of the night to urinate often weeks before my period.

    I do hope someone takes the time to read this and can direct me on how to get help and where to start. I feel helpless and also like a hypochondriac but I know something is not right and that it HAS to all be connected.

    Thank you for whoever reads this,

    Jessica

    • ANSWER:
      wow, people like Rachael are real jerks. I don't know why they spend their time on Q&A if they don't expect people to ask questions.

      Well first you could check up on the side effects of your birth control and see if any of your symptoms match.

      Also, go to the doctor that gave you the birth control and tell them what you have been feeling. See what they say.

      And you could go to specialists for the different problems you have, but make sure you mention the birth control, other symptoms and any meds other docs have given you.

      You could also get second opinions, especially about the birth control and its effects.

      You could always look things up on webmd.com

      I have horrible periods too, I was diagnosed with PMDD and am on YAZ. I don't really see any symptoms except I did get tmj for awhile (but once I got my wisdom teeth removed it hasn't happened since)

      Good luck and feel better

  47. QUESTION:
    Hormone therapy and Aspirin?
    Hello. I just need some opinions. I am in my early 20s non-smoker, non-drinker, very physically fit, good genes, and I am taking relitivley high doses of estrogen. (m2f hrt). My endocrinoligist suggests that I take baby aspirin to reduce my risk of blood clots.

    Before my SR surgery i was taking the same dosage of estrogen, and my family doctor told me my liver enzymes were slightly above average. but now, they should, in theory, be back to normal, because one of the competing hormones (testosterone) is basically gone. (havn't got my blood tests back yet)

    now, I am scared, because, i have never taken any drugs before, other than my hormones, and I feel like if i don't take aspirin then i could die of a blood clot... or if i do take aspirin (for the rest of my life!)... i could develop liver problems, bleed out easily, or suffer from some undiscovered effect.

    other sources than my doctor have informed me that taking aspirin for such a function is something that MUST be permanent, becasue if you stop, a clot could form more easliy (somehow)... don't know if i belive this one... but i don't want any risks.

    so... do i go on without aspirin? do i depend on it for the rest of my life (if so how much)? or... do i jsut stop all my hormones and live my life with very low sex hormone levels? any alternatives?

    thanks for any responses.

    • ANSWER:
      Your doctor has suggested low dose ASA. This is 81mg, which is the dose believed to give the most benefit without much risk.
      The decision you make must weigh the benefits vs the risks.
      Can you live with very low sex hormones? Do you wish to risk a blood clot? Are you prepared to live with liver failure? I do not envy your position. Good luck with your decision.

  48. QUESTION:
    If you have a resp rate of 4 & a pulse ox of 64%, how severe is that in a patient who overdosed on methadone?
    And the patient has cyanosis, and is dianosed w/ respiratory failure w/ respiratory acidosis, has a sinus tachycardia (that will develop shortly into myocardial infarcation), is found to have DVT/peptic ulcer, leukocytosis, renal failure, hypoglycemia, elevated creatinine kinase (in the absence of seisure), elevated transaminases, and hyperkalemia. Is also found to have a thickening of the wall of the gall bladder w/out stones, normal liver, normal pancreas, and aorta in the diaphgram unremarkable, and even though this patient was found in resp. failure situation, they upon administration of narcon 2x (which only brought resp rate ujp to 88% w/ breathing range of 24), the blood pressure was 145/119 w/ pulse of 122, which had to be brought down consequently resulting in low bp which was treated and monitored. This patient was given DVT prophlaxis, intubated, is in renal failure w/ elevation of liver enzymes. The patient goes in and out of unconsciousness waking to trash and grimace and so is put on sedation. Lots more info. Patient in ICU over a week. Impressions by any medically knowledgable????
    (thrash not 'trash')
    the patient is kept in the ICU over a week, the above is how the patient is presented to Critical Care. Patient is considered critically ill.

    • ANSWER:
      You answered the question yourself, critical.

      Because of the long half life of methadone, the patient should likely be or a narcan drip. I'd bet that a lot of problems are due to severe, prolonged hypoxia causing multi-organ failure. Prognosis is "grim".

  49. QUESTION:
    INTESTINES NOT WORKING?
    Nov 19th my cousin (35) was found not alert on the floor.(Not sure how long he was like that before he was found) He was rushed to the ER via ambulance. His blood pressure was VERY low and he was hooked up to a ventilator. Nobody knows what caused this, not even the Doctors. His WBC Was very high. He was not responding to anyone for a week. Then he woke up. He nods his head yes or no. They had him on 3 blood pressure meds to the max to keep him alive. The DR'S Told us a week later that he had a air pocket in his intestines and they had to do surgery right away or he could die, he also warned us that he may not be strong enough to survive surgery. He came out of surgery, and his blood pressure was 46/19. It kept coming up through out the week. The DR had to remove his colon and a hiuge portion of his intestines. He has had so many blood transfusions and platelets. One day alone he had 15 transfusions, because his blood was not clotting. The other day they found blood in his colostomy bag. They said it could have been colitis, but he had 3 more transfuisions for that and on friday he had another one, because he is anemic. hE HAS BEEN HAVING A FEVER ON AND OFF Since..The DR told us he is in septic shock, but they don't know why or what caused this whole issue with my cousin. I talked to a DR the other day, but he is VERY hard to understand. (language barrier) From what I did get out of him he said that My cousin will never be the same person we knew. He said that if he will end up in a long term care facility. We don';t know the extent of damage to to brain do to lack of oxygen. He nods/crys and looks at you, but won't move his arms/legs. His liver and kidney have failed and he has been getting dialysis every other day. They say the Kidneys are gfetting better, but the liver enzymes are off. What I want to know is--- Does this look promising? Can/will he get better?!? He has been like this for almost 1 month and I just need to know from a professional stand point what you think could happen..
    forgot to add.. They put him on a feeding tube friday, but had to take him off of it. They said his intestines are not working yet and his body is rejecting it.

    • ANSWER:
      wow, I don't have an answer I can tell you that I feel for your cousin and your family. Recently I had to be rushed to the ER and had my coon taken out I have been fortunate enough to have a ileostomy which means i might be able to lead a normal life and go normally without my bag. Just wanted to say I know what he is going through a little maybe not as extreme and I will pray for him if you give his name if not I will still. Please let me know how he is doing when u get the chance.

      Best wishes Kenneth

  50. QUESTION:
    Does anybody know anybody with Autoimmune Hepatitis? Does it sound like I could have it?
    Last year I had Mono (Epstein Barr), and I noticed that my skin was turning yellowish and very, very itchy. Not to sound too graphic or anything, but my stools turned grey, and at other times completely white! I found out that I am a Celiac and have many, many antibodies against my thyroid (I have both Hashimotos and Graves). My doctor just told me that it appears I am in the begining stages of Lupus and Sjogren's. My maternal aunt has Scleroderma and my paternal grandfather was type I diabetic. My problem right now is that I often feel VERY itchy, get wierd rashes & scalp problems, my skin turns yellowish, and lately it feels like a weight dropped in between my ribs. Other times I look so pale, my mother pointed it out to me. My GI doctor told me that I have slow digestion (usually called gasteroparesis). My family and friends have been commenting on how I am randomly loosing weight, even though I feel like I eat so much (other times I just get so full so easily & feel nauseous). Once again, (not to be gross or whatever), my stools are turning lighter (and looks like nothing is being absorbed, sometimes). Recently my vitamin D levels came back low, and I had JUST been in Florida and was taking supplements. My bun creat ration was low as well. My legs, face, and stomach periodically swell up, and I feel confused and spacy often (was partially thyroid related). A year ago, my rheumatologist checked my liver enzymes. I rescently went to a new rhem & he took over 40 blood sampes & a urine sample! Does this sound like autoimmune hepatits though, is it hard to diagnose?
    after eating, I often have sqeezing pain in my back and pain in my lower sides under my back ribcage. I told my mom this & she says it sounds like a gall-bladder issue. I am NOT overweight, pregnant & not even 20 years old!

    • ANSWER:
      Sounds like a few things are going on. Jaundice being one of them. Jaundice occurs because of the liver not functioning properly. There could be a whole slew of issues that cause the jaundice such as hepatitis or alcoholism. I'm not saying that is what is happening to you but lets not rule anything out. Have you told your doctor everything that is going on? Write a list of every symptom and give it to your doctor. If he ignores your symptoms, inform him that you will seek medical advice elsewhere. Doctors work for YOU! Dont allow them be complacent!